As sound waves enter the ear, they travel through the outer ear, the external auditory canal, and strike the eardrum causing it to vibrate. As the malleus vibrates, it transmits the sound vibrations to the other two small bones or ossicles of the middle ear, the incus and stapes. This action is passed onto the cochlea, which is a fluid-filled snail-like structure that contains the receptor organ for hearing. The sound vibrations pass from the eardrum to the middle ear bones. Sound waves entering the ear canal cause the eardrum to vibrate. This bone, in turn, passes its vibrations to a bone called the anvil (incus).
Vibrations pass through the skull to temporal bone. Canal leading to eardrum and middle ear: tympanic region marking of the temporal bone containing the wax-secreting ceruminous glands. Membrane tube in cochlea, filled with fluid that vibrates when sound waves are transmitted by the stapes. The final bone in the series of small bones or ossicles of the middle ear. The basilar membrane is thin and tight at the end near the stapes and sound passing through this part with give a___________. The ossicles directly couple sound energy from the ear drum to the oval window of the cochlea. Vibrations of the stapes footplate introduce pressure waves in the inner ear. Of surgical importance are two branches of the facial nerve that also pass through the middle ear space.
The ossicles also magnify the amplitude of the vibrations. The auditory ossicles vibrate with the eardrum and conduct sounds through the middle ear to the inner ear. Tiny muscles attached to the ossicles contract or relax to attenuate the volume of sounds passing through the middle ear. The pinna collects and directs sounds down the ear canal. The walls of the ear canal are sensitive to touch and there is even a cranial nerve branch that passes just below the back canal wall surface.
There are 3 tiny bones called ossicles (oss-ik-uls) in this part. When the sound waves move the eardrum, these bones move and pass on the vibration to the much smaller oval shaped window of the cochlea (the bit that looks like a shell). A loud sound is about a million million (1012) times greater than that of the weakest sounds. Vibrations of the ear can be as small as 10-8 mm or smaller than a hydrogen atom! The frequency range for hearing varies greatly between individuals. Middle ear: Eardrum – hard membrane, Ossicles. Inner ear: Oval window, Cochlea, Auditory nerve. Vibrations pass from the oval window to the round window. When the oval window pushes in the round window pushes out and visa-versa. The ear has important structures to allow sound vibrations to pass to the cochlea. These structures are the pinna, ear canal, eardrum, ossicles and cochlea. The eardrum vibrates when hit by sound waves that have travelled through the auditory canal, and then transfers these vibrations to the middle ear. Behind the eardrum, the middle ear space connects the ear to the nose (via the Eustachian tube) and passes on sound to the inner ear via three tiny bones called the ossicles. The sound vibrations in the ossicles are then transmitted to the nerves and fluids in the cochlea (inner ear), which generates a nerve impulse that passes along the auditory nerve to the brain. The sound vibrations in the ossicles are then transmitted to the nerves and fluids in the cochlea (inner ear), which generates a nerve impulse that passes along the auditory nerve to the brain. Chronic otitis media is associated with damage to the ear drum or ossicles (middle ear bones), and frequently requires surgery. The pinna protects the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and directs sound down the ear canal to the tympanic membrane. The vibrations are passed to the ossicles, which form a system of interlinked mechanical levers: First, vibrations pass to the malleus, which pushes the incus, which pushes the stapes.
Hearing And Equilibrium
The sound vibrations pass from the eardrum to the ossicles. The ossicles then transmit the vibrations to the cochlea in the inner ear. The cochlea converts the vibrations to sound signals which are sent down a nerve from the ear to the brain, allowing us to hear. They also help compensate for the loss in sound energy that naturally occurs when the sound waves pass from air into water by amplifying the sound energy during the process of sound transmission. In addition to converting sound waves into nerve action potentials, the inner ear is also responsible for the sense of equilibrium, which relates to our general abilities for balance and coordination. The hair cells can convert sound waves into nerve impulses, which then travel to the brainstem. The malleus articulates with the incus and is attached to the eardrum, from which vibrational energy is passed. As sound waves vibrate the eardrum, it in turn moves the nearest ossicle, the malleus to which it is attached.